# Next chains

Vulkan has a concept of next chains, where API structures can be chained together by filling an optional next field in a nested manner (hence the name).

This poses a few challenges on the Julia side, because in Vulkan such chains are linked lists which use raw pointers. Raw pointers are the reason why we required so-called intermediate structures that wrap core structures. As a reminder, these intermediate structures are nothing more than a core structure put alongside a vector of dependencies which holds Julia objects (arrays or references). These dependencies are what guarantees the validity of pointers present in the core structure, by making the garbage collector aware that these references must not be freed as long as the core structure is used (i.e., as long as the intermediate wrapper is used).

Having linked lists with opaque pointers complicate the matter. First, one must be able to build such chains to pass in the data structures to Vulkan in the format the API expects. That is the easiest part, since we can have arbitrary objects in the next field of high-level wrappers. From there, we can build a reference (Ref) to these (immutable) objects and then turn these references into pointers.

The Vulkan API sometimes makes use of a pattern where a next chain gets filled by an API command, such as vkGetPhysicalDeviceProperties2. The challenge then lies in initializing an empty intermediate object for Vulkan to fill in. We must construct core objects recursively with the right dependencies; care must be taken because every core object that is used in the chain must be saved as a dependency, but must also contain next members recursively. Therefore, in the initialization logic (implemented in initialize), core objects are initialized via initialize_core and their corresponding reference (if the object is not the root object) is filled with the result to be retained in the only intermediate structure that will contain the whole chain.

Reconstructing the original object is fairly straightforward. If the result is meant to be an intermediate structure, we can simply wrap the core object, the dependency being the original intermediate object that was used to initialize the object and its chain. If we want a high-level structure instead, then we need to chase pointers iteratively from the next chain of the core object, reconstructing the next objects by loading the pointers as we go along.

Vulkan.initializeFunction
initialize(T, next_Ts...)

Initialize a value or Vulkan structure with the purpose of being filled in by the API. The types can be either high-level or intermediate wrapper types.

If next_Ts is not empty and T designates a Vulkan structure which can hold next chains, then the corresponding types will be initialized and added to the next/pNext member.

initialize(
T::Union{Type{<:Vulkan.HighLevelStruct}, Type{<:VulkanStruct}},
args...
) -> Any

source
Vulkan.initialize_coreFunction
initialize_core(T, next_refs)

Initialize a core Vulkan structure, with next chain types specified in refs.

Every ref in refs will be used to construct an initialized pNext element, and will be filled with the value of the initialized type, acting as the pointer. Note that these references will have to be preserved for the initialized Vulkan structure to remain valid.

initialize_core(T, refs) -> Any

source